Quarterly report pursuant to Section 13 or 15(d)

Summary of Significant Accounting Policies (Policies)

v3.21.2
Summary of Significant Accounting Policies (Policies)
9 Months Ended
Sep. 30, 2021
Accounting Policies [Abstract]  
Principles of Consolidation The condensed consolidated financial statements of Quanta include the accounts of Quanta Services, Inc. and its wholly-owned subsidiaries, which are also referred to as its operating units. The condensed consolidated financial statements also include the accounts of certain of Quanta’s investments in joint ventures, which are either consolidated or proportionately consolidated. Investments in affiliated entities in which Quanta does not have a controlling financial interest, but over which Quanta has significant influence, usually because Quanta holds a voting interest of between 20% and 50% in the affiliated entity, are accounted for using the equity method. Unless the context requires otherwise, references to Quanta include Quanta Services, Inc. and its consolidated subsidiaries.
Interim Condensed Consolidated Financial Information These unaudited condensed consolidated financial statements have been prepared pursuant to the rules of the U.S. Securities and Exchange Commission (SEC). Certain information and footnote disclosures, normally included in annual financial statements prepared in accordance with generally accepted accounting principles in the United States (GAAP), have been condensed or omitted pursuant to those rules and regulations. Quanta believes that the disclosures made are adequate to make the information presented not misleading. In the opinion of management, all adjustments, consisting only of normal recurring adjustments, necessary to fairly state the financial position, results of operations, comprehensive income and cash flows with respect to the interim condensed consolidated financial statements have been included. The results of operations and comprehensive income for the interim periods are not necessarily indicative of the results for the entire fiscal year. The results of Quanta have historically been subject to significant seasonal fluctuations.
Use of Estimates and Assumptions The preparation of financial statements in conformity with GAAP requires the use of estimates and assumptions by management in determining the reported amounts of assets and liabilities, disclosures of contingent assets and liabilities known to exist as of the date the financial statements are published, and the reported amounts of revenues and expenses recognized during the periods presented. Quanta reviews all significant estimates affecting its consolidated financial statements on a recurring basis and records the effect of any necessary adjustments prior to their publication. Judgments and estimates are based on Quanta’s beliefs and assumptions derived from information available at the time such judgments and estimates are made. Uncertainties with respect to such estimates and assumptions are inherent in the preparation of financial statements. Estimates are primarily used in Quanta’s assessment of revenue recognition for construction contracts, including contractual change orders and claims; allowance for credit losses; valuation of inventory; useful lives of assets; fair value assumptions in analyzing goodwill, other intangibles and long-lived asset impairments; equity and other investments; purchase price allocations; acquisition-related contingent consideration liabilities; multiemployer pension plan withdrawal liabilities; contingent liabilities associated with, among other things, legal proceedings and claims, parent guarantees and indemnity obligations; estimated insurance claim recoveries; stock-based compensation; operating results of reportable segments; provision for income taxes; and uncertain tax positions.
Revenue Recognition
Quanta’s services may be provided pursuant to master service agreements (MSAs), repair and maintenance contracts and fixed price and non-fixed price construction contracts. These contracts are classified into three categories based on the methods by which transaction prices are determined and revenue is recognized: unit-price contracts, cost-plus contracts and fixed price contracts. Transaction prices for unit-price contracts are determined on a per unit basis, transaction prices for cost-plus contracts are determined by applying a profit margin to costs incurred on the contracts and transaction prices for fixed price contracts are determined on a lump-sum basis.
Performance Obligations
At September 30, 2021 and December 31, 2020, the aggregate transaction price allocated to unsatisfied or partially satisfied performance obligations was approximately $4.37 billion and $3.99 billion, of which 78.7% and 71.2% were expected to be recognized in the subsequent twelve months. These amounts represent management’s estimates of the consolidated revenues that are expected to be realized from the remaining portion of firm orders under fixed price contracts not yet completed or for which work had not yet begun as of such dates. For purposes of calculating remaining performance
obligations, Quanta includes all estimated revenues attributable to consolidated joint ventures and variable interest entities, revenues from funded and unfunded portions of government contracts to the extent they are reasonably expected to be realized and revenues from change orders and claims to the extent management believes additional contract revenues will be earned and are deemed probable of collection. Excluded from remaining performance obligations are potential orders under MSAs and non-fixed price contracts expected to be completed within one year.
Contract Estimates
Actual revenues and project costs can vary, sometimes substantially, from previous estimates due to changes in a variety of factors, including unforeseen or changed circumstances not included in Quanta’s cost estimates or covered by its contracts. Some of the factors that can result in positive changes in estimates on projects include successful execution through project risks, reduction of estimated project costs or increases of estimated revenues. Some of the factors that can result in negative changes in estimates include concealed or unknown site conditions; changes to or disputes with customers regarding the scope of services; changes in estimates related to the length of time to complete a performance obligation; changes or delays with respect to permitting and regulatory requirements; changes in the cost or availability of equipment, commodities, materials or skilled labor; unanticipated costs or claims due to delays or failure to perform by customers or third parties; customer failure to provide required materials or equipment; errors in engineering, specifications or designs; project modifications; adverse weather conditions, natural disasters, and other emergencies (including the ongoing COVID-19 pandemic); and performance and quality issues causing delay (including payment of liquidated damages) or requiring rework or replacement. Any changes in estimates may result in changes to profitability or losses associated with the related performance obligations.
Changes in estimated revenues, costs and profit are recognized on a cumulative catch-up basis and recorded in the period they are determined to be probable and can be reasonably estimated. Such changes in estimates can result in the recognition of revenue in a current period for performance obligations that were satisfied or partially satisfied in prior periods or the reversal of previously recognized revenue if the currently estimated revenue is less than the previous estimate. The impact of a change in contract estimate is measured as the difference between the revenue or gross profit recognized in the prior period as compared to the revenue or gross profit which would have been recognized had the revised estimate been used as the basis of recognition in the prior period. Changes in estimates can also result in contract losses, which are recognized in full when they are determined to be probable and can be reasonably estimated.
Under fixed price contracts, as well as unit-price contracts with more than an insignificant amount of partially completed units, revenue is recognized as performance obligations are satisfied over time, with the percentage completion generally measured as the percentage of costs incurred to total estimated costs for such performance obligation. Contract assets and liabilities fluctuate period to period based on various factors, including, among others, changes in the number and size of projects in progress at period end and variability in billing and payment terms, such as up-front or advance billings, interim or milestone billings, deferred billings and unapproved change orders and contract claims recognized in revenues.
Current and Long-Term Accounts Receivable and Allowance for Credit Losses
Quanta’s historical loss ratio and its determination of risk pools, which are used to calculate expected credit losses, may be adjusted for changes in customer credit concentrations within its portfolio of financial assets, customers’ ability to pay, and other considerations, such as economic and market changes, changes to the regulatory or technological environments affecting customers and the consistency between current and forecasted economic conditions and historical economic conditions used to derive historical loss ratios. At the end of each quarter, management reassesses these and other relevant factors, including any potential effects from the currently challenged energy market and the ongoing COVID-19 pandemic.
Quanta considers accounts receivable delinquent after 30 days but does not generally consider such amounts delinquent in its credit loss analysis unless the accounts receivable are at least 90 days past due. In addition to monitoring delinquent accounts, management monitors the credit quality of its receivables by, among other things, obtaining credit ratings of significant customers, assessing economic and market conditions and evaluating material changes to a customer’s business, cash flows and financial condition. Should anticipated recoveries relating to receivables fail to materialize, including anticipated recoveries relating to bankruptcies or other workout situations, Quanta could experience reduced cash flows and losses in excess of current allowances provided.
Cash and Cash Equivalents Cash and cash equivalents held by joint ventures, which are either consolidated or proportionately consolidated, are available to support joint venture operations, but Quanta cannot utilize those assets to support its other operations. Quanta generally has no right to cash and cash equivalents held by a joint venture other than participating in distributions, to the extent made, and in the event of dissolution. Cash and cash equivalents held by Quanta’s wholly-owned captive insurance company are generally not available for use in support of its other operations.
Goodwill and Other Intangible Assets Goodwill, net of accumulated impairment losses, represents the excess of cost over the fair market value of net tangible and identifiable intangible assets of acquired businesses and is stated at cost. Quanta has determined that its individual operating units represent its reporting units for the purpose of assessing goodwill impairment. Goodwill is not amortized but is tested for impairment annually in the fourth quarter of the fiscal year, or more frequently if events or circumstances arise which indicate
that goodwill may be impaired. Qualitative indicators that may trigger the need for annual or interim quantitative impairment testing include, among other things, deterioration in macroeconomic conditions; declining financial performance; deterioration in the operational environment; an expectation of selling or disposing of a portion of a reporting unit; a significant change in market, management, business strategy or business climate; a loss of a significant customer; increased competition; a sustained decrease in share price; or a decrease in Quanta’s market capitalization below book value. Quanta did not identify any triggering events in the first three quarters of 2021 and did not recognize any goodwill impairments for the three and nine months ended September 30, 2021.
Quanta’s intangible assets include customer relationships; backlog; trade names; non-compete agreements; patented rights, developed technology, and process certifications; and curriculum, all of which are subject to amortization, as well as an engineering license, which is not subject to amortization. As a result of the broader challenges in the energy market, the effect of which continues to be exacerbated by the COVID-19 pandemic, Quanta assessed the expected negative impact related to its intangible assets, particularly intangible assets associated with reporting units within the Underground Utility and Infrastructure Solutions Division. Quanta concluded that such impact is not likely to result in intangible asset impairments, and therefore no intangible asset impairments were recognized during the three and nine months ended September 30, 2021.
In connection with its annual goodwill assessment in 2020, Quanta also considered the sensitivity of its fair value estimates to changes in certain valuation assumptions, including with respect to reporting units within Quanta’s Underground Utility and Infrastructure Solutions Division that have recently been negatively impacted by energy market challenges. The potential future impact of these challenges is uncertain and depends on numerous factors and could continue or increase in future periods. In particular, two Canadian pipeline-related businesses and a United States material handling services business were identified in the annual goodwill assessment to have an increased risk of goodwill impairment in the near and medium term due to the currently challenged energy market. After taking into account a 10% decrease in fair value, these reporting units would have had fair values below their carrying amounts as of December 31, 2020. The aggregate goodwill and intangible asset balances for these three businesses totaled $100.1 million and $16.0 million as of September 30, 2021. In addition, a specialized industrial services business located in the United States experienced lower demand for certain services during the year ended December 31, 2020, which has continued in 2021, as customers reduced and deferred regularly scheduled maintenance due to lack of demand for refined products, particularly certain transportation-related fuels, as a result of the COVID-19 pandemic. After taking into account a 10% decrease in fair value, the reporting unit would have had a fair value in excess of its carrying amount as of December 31, 2020; however, uncertainty as to the timing and extent of recovery of demand for refined products has increased the risk of goodwill impairment for this reporting unit. The goodwill and intangible asset balances for this reporting unit were $313.4 million and $51.9 million as of September 30, 2021. Quanta will continue to monitor the goodwill associated with these reporting units, and should they suffer additional declines in actual or forecasted financial results, the risk of goodwill impairment would increase.
Investments in Affiliates and Other Entities
Investments in entities of which Quanta is not the primary beneficiary, but over which Quanta has the ability to exercise significant influence, are accounted for using the equity method of accounting. Equity method investments are carried at original cost adjusted for Quanta’s proportionate share of the investees’ income, losses and distributions. The carrying values for Quanta’s unconsolidated equity method investments were $73.8 million and $44.9 million at September 30, 2021 and December 31, 2020 and are included in “Other assets, net” in the accompanying condensed consolidated balance sheets. Quanta’s share of net income or losses of these investments is included within operating income in the accompanying condensed consolidated statements of operations when the investee is operationally integral to the operations of Quanta and is reported as “Equity in earnings (losses) of integral unconsolidated affiliates.” Quanta’s share of net income or losses of unconsolidated equity method investments that are not operationally integral to the operations of Quanta are included in “Other income (expense), net” below operating income in the accompanying condensed consolidated statements of operations. As of September 30, 2021, Quanta had receivables of $13.3 million and payables of $3.2 million from its integral unconsolidated affiliates.
During the nine months ended September 30, 2020, Quanta recognized impairment losses of $8.7 million related to a non-integral equity method investment, which were primarily due to the decline in commodity prices and production volumes during 2020. These impairment losses are included in “Other income (expense), net” in the accompanying condensed consolidated statements of operations for the nine months ended September 30, 2020.
In October 2021, Quanta acquired a 44% interest in an entity that provides right-of-way solutions, including site preparation and clearing, materials delivery and installation and management of permitting requirements and traffic control for approximately $18 million, subject to certain adjustments. This investment will be accounted for as an integral affiliate using the equity method of accounting.
Investments in entities of which Quanta is not the primary beneficiary, and over which Quanta does not have the ability to exercise significant influence are accounted for using the cost method of accounting. Additionally, certain investments provide for significant influence over the investee, but also include preferential liquidation rights, which precludes accounting for the investments under the equity method. These cost method investments are required to be measured at fair value, with changes in fair value recognized in net income unless the investments do not have readily determinable fair values, in which case the investments are measured at cost minus impairment (if any), plus or minus observable price changes in orderly transactions for an identical or similar investment in the same company. Earnings on investments accounted for using the cost method of accounting are recognized as dividends are declared. These earnings and any impairments of cost method investments are reported in “Other income (expense), net” in the accompanying condensed consolidated statements of operations.
The carrying values for investments accounted for using the cost method of accounting were $130.2 million and $39.5 million at September 30, 2021 and December 31, 2020, and these amounts are included in “Other assets, net” in the accompanying condensed consolidated balance sheets. During the three months ended March 31, 2021, Quanta acquired a minority interest in a broadband technology provider for $90.0 million. This investment includes preferential liquidation rights and is accounted for using the cost method of accounting. There have been no changes in the carrying value of the investment through September 30, 2021.
During the three months ended March 31, 2021, Quanta also purchased, through its wholly-owned captive insurance company, certain real property, including associated buildings and facilities, that is expected to be developed for its future corporate headquarters. A portion of this property is currently leased to third-party lessees and is expected to continue to be leased to third-party lessees in the future. As a result, an investment in real estate of $23.5 million was recognized at cost for the third-party leased portion of the property during the three months ended March 31, 2021, and the carrying amount of $23.4 million is included in “Other assets, net” in the accompanying condensed consolidated balance sheet at September 30, 2021.
During the three months ended June 30, 2020, Quanta recognized a $9.3 million impairment to an investment in a water and gas infrastructure contractor, which also represents the cumulative amount of impairment on investments accounted for using the cost method of accounting. Quanta did not exercise its option to acquire the remaining interest in this business at an agreed price based on a multiple of the company’s earnings during a designated performance period.
Income Taxes Quanta regularly evaluates valuation allowances established for deferred tax assets for which future realization is uncertain, including in connection with changes in tax laws. The estimation of required valuation allowances includes estimates of future taxable income. The ultimate realization of deferred tax assets is dependent upon the generation of future taxable income during the periods in which those temporary differences become deductible. Quanta considers projected future taxable income and tax planning strategies in making this assessment. If actual future taxable income differs from these estimates, Quanta may not realize deferred tax assets to the extent estimated.
Fair Value Measurements
For disclosure purposes, qualifying assets and liabilities are categorized into three broad levels based on the priority of the inputs used to determine their fair values. The fair value hierarchy gives the highest priority to quoted prices (unadjusted) in active markets for identical assets or liabilities (Level 1) and the lowest priority to unobservable inputs (Level 3). Certain assumptions and other information as they relate to these qualifying assets and liabilities are described below.
Goodwill and Other Intangible Assets
Quanta has recorded goodwill and identifiable intangible assets in connection with certain of its historical business acquisitions. Quanta utilizes the fair value premise as the primary basis for its impairment valuation procedures. The Goodwill and Other Intangible Assets sections in Note 2 of the Notes to Consolidated Financial Statements in Item 8. Financial Statements and Supplementary Data in Part II of the 2020 Annual Report provide information regarding valuation methods, including the income approach, market approach and cost approach, and assumptions used to determine the fair value of these assets based on the appropriateness of each method in relation to the type of asset being valued. Quanta believes that the valuation methods it employs appropriately represent the methods that would be used by other market participants in determining fair value, and periodically engages the services of an independent valuation firm when a new business is acquired to assist management with the valuation process, including assistance with the selection of appropriate valuation methodologies and the development of market-based valuation assumptions. The level of inputs used for these fair value measurements is the lowest level (Level 3).
Investments
Equity investments with readily determinable fair values are measured at fair value, with changes in fair value recognized in net income. In cases where those readily determinable values are quoted market prices, the level of input used for these fair value measurements is the highest level (Level 1). Equity investments without readily determinable fair values are measured on a nonrecurring basis. These types of fair market value assessments are similar to other nonrecurring fair value measures used by Quanta, which include the use of significant judgments and available relevant market data. Such market data may include observations of the valuation of comparable companies, risk-adjusted discount rates and an evaluation of the expected
performance of the underlying portfolio asset, including historical and projected levels of profitability or cash flows. In addition, a variety of additional factors may be reviewed by management, including, but not limited to, contemporaneous financing and sales transactions with third parties, changes in market outlook and the third-party financing environment. The level of inputs used for these fair value measurements is the lowest level (Level 3).
Quanta has investments accounted for using the equity and cost methods of accounting. Quanta utilizes the fair value premise as the basis for its impairment valuation and recognizes impairment if there are sufficient indicators that the fair value of the investment is less than its carrying value.
Financial Instruments
The carrying amounts of cash equivalents, accounts receivable, contract assets, accounts payable, accrued expenses and contract liabilities approximate fair value due to the short-term nature of these instruments. All of Quanta’s cash equivalents were categorized as Level 1 assets at September 30, 2021 and December 31, 2020, as all values were based on unadjusted quoted prices for identical assets in an active market that Quanta has the ability to access.
Long-term Debt
The carrying amount of variable rate debt, which includes borrowings under Quanta’s senior credit facility, approximates fair value. Quanta’s fixed rate debt primarily includes its senior notes. The fair value of Quanta’s senior notes, which are described further in Note 6, was $2.52 billion at September 30, 2021, compared to a carrying value of $2.47 billion net of unamortized bond discount, underwriting discounts and deferred financing costs of $28.3 million. The fair value of the senior notes is based on the quoted market prices for the same issue, and the senior notes are categorized as Level 1 liabilities. See Note 6 for additional information regarding Quanta’s senior credit facility and senior notes.
Adoption of New Accounting Pronouncements and Accounting Standards Not Yet Adopted
Adoption of New Accounting Pronouncements
In December 2019, the FASB issued an update that, among other things, amends the guidance related to accounting for tax law changes when an entity has a year-to-date loss in an interim period and provides guidance on how to evaluate whether a step-up in tax basis of goodwill relates to a business combination or a separate transaction. This update is effective for interim and annual periods beginning after December 15, 2020, with certain amendments applied prospectively and other amendments applied on a modified retrospective basis. Quanta adopted this update effective January 1, 2021, and it did not have a material impact on Quanta’s condensed consolidated financial statements at the date of adoption.
In January 2020, the FASB issued an update that clarified the applicable guidance for measurement of the fair value of equity and cost method investments when there is a change in the level of ownership or degree of influence. Quanta adopted this update effective January 1, 2021 and will prospectively apply this update.
Acquisitions These allocations require significant use of estimates and are based on information that was available to management at the time these condensed consolidated financial statements were prepared. Quanta uses a variety of information to estimate fair values, including quoted market prices, carrying amounts and valuation techniques such as discounted cash flows. When deemed appropriate, third-party appraisal firms are engaged to assist in fair value determination of fixed assets, intangible assets and certain other assets and liabilities.
Segment Information
Quanta currently presents its operations under two reportable segments: (1) Electric Power Infrastructure Solutions and (2) Underground Utility and Infrastructure Solutions. This structure is generally based on the broad end-user markets for Quanta’s services. See Note 1 for additional information regarding Quanta’s reportable segments.
Quanta’s segment results are derived from the types of services provided across its operating units in each of its end user markets. Quanta’s entrepreneurial business model allows multiple operating units to serve the same or similar customers and to provide a range of services across end user markets. Quanta’s operating units are organized into one of two internal divisions: the Electric Power Infrastructure Solutions Division and the Underground Utility and Infrastructure Solutions Division. These internal divisions are closely aligned with the reportable segments, and operating units are assigned to divisions based on the predominant type of work performed.
Reportable segment information, including revenues and operating income by type of work, is gathered from each operating unit for the purpose of evaluating segment performance in support of Quanta’s market strategies. Classification of operating unit revenues by type of work for segment reporting purposes can require judgment on the part of management. Quanta’s operating units may perform joint projects for customers in multiple industries, deliver multiple types of services under a single customer contract or provide service offerings to various industries. For example, Quanta performs joint trenching projects to install distribution lines for electric power and natural gas customers.
In addition, Quanta’s integrated operations and common administrative support for its operating units require that certain allocations be made to determine segment profitability, including allocations of shared and indirect costs (e.g., facility costs), indirect operating expenses (e.g., depreciation), and general and administrative costs. Certain corporate costs are not allocated
and include payroll and benefits, employee travel expenses, facility costs, professional fees, acquisition costs and amortization related to intangible assets.