Quarterly report pursuant to Section 13 or 15(d)

Summary of Significant Accounting Policies

v3.21.2
Summary of Significant Accounting Policies
9 Months Ended
Sep. 30, 2021
Accounting Policies [Abstract]  
Summary of Significant Accounting Policies SUMMARY OF SIGNIFICANT ACCOUNTING POLICIES:
Principles of Consolidation
The condensed consolidated financial statements of Quanta include the accounts of Quanta Services, Inc. and its wholly-owned subsidiaries, which are also referred to as its operating units. The condensed consolidated financial statements also include the accounts of certain of Quanta’s investments in joint ventures, which are either consolidated or proportionately consolidated. Investments in affiliated entities in which Quanta does not have a controlling financial interest, but over which Quanta has significant influence, usually because Quanta holds a voting interest of between 20% and 50% in the affiliated entity, are accounted for using the equity method. Unless the context requires otherwise, references to Quanta include Quanta Services, Inc. and its consolidated subsidiaries.
Interim Condensed Consolidated Financial Information
These unaudited condensed consolidated financial statements have been prepared pursuant to the rules of the U.S. Securities and Exchange Commission (SEC). Certain information and footnote disclosures, normally included in annual financial statements prepared in accordance with generally accepted accounting principles in the United States (GAAP), have been condensed or omitted pursuant to those rules and regulations. Quanta believes that the disclosures made are adequate to make the information presented not misleading. In the opinion of management, all adjustments, consisting only of normal recurring adjustments, necessary to fairly state the financial position, results of operations, comprehensive income and cash flows with respect to the interim condensed consolidated financial statements have been included. The results of operations and comprehensive income for the interim periods are not necessarily indicative of the results for the entire fiscal year. The results of Quanta have historically been subject to significant seasonal fluctuations.
Quanta recommends that these unaudited condensed consolidated financial statements be read in conjunction with the audited consolidated financial statements and notes thereto of Quanta and its consolidated subsidiaries, which contain additional information about Quanta’s policies and are included in Quanta’s 2020 Annual Report.
Use of Estimates and Assumptions
The preparation of financial statements in conformity with GAAP requires the use of estimates and assumptions by management in determining the reported amounts of assets and liabilities, disclosures of contingent assets and liabilities known to exist as of the date the financial statements are published, and the reported amounts of revenues and expenses recognized during the periods presented. Quanta reviews all significant estimates affecting its consolidated financial statements on a recurring basis and records the effect of any necessary adjustments prior to their publication. Judgments and estimates are based on Quanta’s beliefs and assumptions derived from information available at the time such judgments and estimates are made. Uncertainties with respect to such estimates and assumptions are inherent in the preparation of financial statements. Estimates are primarily used in Quanta’s assessment of revenue recognition for construction contracts, including contractual change orders and claims; allowance for credit losses; valuation of inventory; useful lives of assets; fair value assumptions in analyzing goodwill, other intangibles and long-lived asset impairments; equity and other investments; purchase price allocations; acquisition-related contingent consideration liabilities; multiemployer pension plan withdrawal liabilities; contingent liabilities associated with, among other things, legal proceedings and claims, parent guarantees and indemnity obligations; estimated insurance claim recoveries; stock-based compensation; operating results of reportable segments; provision for income taxes; and uncertain tax positions.
Revenue Recognition
Quanta’s services may be provided pursuant to master service agreements (MSAs), repair and maintenance contracts and fixed price and non-fixed price construction contracts. These contracts are classified into three categories based on the methods by which transaction prices are determined and revenue is recognized: unit-price contracts, cost-plus contracts and fixed price contracts. Transaction prices for unit-price contracts are determined on a per unit basis, transaction prices for cost-plus contracts are determined by applying a profit margin to costs incurred on the contracts and transaction prices for fixed price contracts are determined on a lump-sum basis.
Performance Obligations
At September 30, 2021 and December 31, 2020, the aggregate transaction price allocated to unsatisfied or partially satisfied performance obligations was approximately $4.37 billion and $3.99 billion, of which 78.7% and 71.2% were expected to be recognized in the subsequent twelve months. These amounts represent management’s estimates of the consolidated revenues that are expected to be realized from the remaining portion of firm orders under fixed price contracts not yet completed or for which work had not yet begun as of such dates. For purposes of calculating remaining performance
obligations, Quanta includes all estimated revenues attributable to consolidated joint ventures and variable interest entities, revenues from funded and unfunded portions of government contracts to the extent they are reasonably expected to be realized and revenues from change orders and claims to the extent management believes additional contract revenues will be earned and are deemed probable of collection. Excluded from remaining performance obligations are potential orders under MSAs and non-fixed price contracts expected to be completed within one year.
Contract Estimates
Actual revenues and project costs can vary, sometimes substantially, from previous estimates due to changes in a variety of factors, including unforeseen or changed circumstances not included in Quanta’s cost estimates or covered by its contracts. Some of the factors that can result in positive changes in estimates on projects include successful execution through project risks, reduction of estimated project costs or increases of estimated revenues. Some of the factors that can result in negative changes in estimates include concealed or unknown site conditions; changes to or disputes with customers regarding the scope of services; changes in estimates related to the length of time to complete a performance obligation; changes or delays with respect to permitting and regulatory requirements; changes in the cost or availability of equipment, commodities, materials or skilled labor; unanticipated costs or claims due to delays or failure to perform by customers or third parties; customer failure to provide required materials or equipment; errors in engineering, specifications or designs; project modifications; adverse weather conditions, natural disasters, and other emergencies (including the ongoing COVID-19 pandemic); and performance and quality issues causing delay (including payment of liquidated damages) or requiring rework or replacement. Any changes in estimates may result in changes to profitability or losses associated with the related performance obligations.
Changes in estimated revenues, costs and profit are recognized on a cumulative catch-up basis and recorded in the period they are determined to be probable and can be reasonably estimated. Such changes in estimates can result in the recognition of revenue in a current period for performance obligations that were satisfied or partially satisfied in prior periods or the reversal of previously recognized revenue if the currently estimated revenue is less than the previous estimate. The impact of a change in contract estimate is measured as the difference between the revenue or gross profit recognized in the prior period as compared to the revenue or gross profit which would have been recognized had the revised estimate been used as the basis of recognition in the prior period. Changes in estimates can also result in contract losses, which are recognized in full when they are determined to be probable and can be reasonably estimated.
Operating results for the three months ended September 30, 2021 were favorably impacted by $41.9 million, or 7.8%, of gross profit as a result of aggregate changes in contract estimates related to projects that were in progress at June 30, 2021. Operating results for the nine months ended September 30, 2021 were favorably impacted by $127.4 million, or 9.4%, of gross profit as a result of aggregate changes in contract estimates related to projects that were in progress at December 31, 2020. The overall favorable impact resulted from net positive changes in estimates across a large number of projects, primarily as a result of favorable performance and successful mitigation of risks and contingencies as the projects progressed to completion.
Operating results for the three months ended September 30, 2020 were favorably impacted by $48.7 million, or 9.6%, of gross profit as a result of aggregate changes in contract estimates related to projects that were in progress at June 30, 2020. Operating results for the nine months ended September 30, 2020 were impacted by less than 5% of gross profit as a result of aggregate changes in contract estimates related to projects that were in progress at December 31, 2019.
Certain projects were materially impacted by changes to estimated contract revenues and/or project costs during the three and nine months ended September 30, 2020. Revenues and gross profit were favorably impacted as a result of successful execution through project risks and close-out activities on certain large pipeline projects in the United States, as well as a project scope reduction on a large pipeline project in the United States that allowed Quanta to recognize a portion of previously deferred milestone payments and reduce certain contingencies on the project. The favorable impact related to these projects was partially offset by increased costs on two large pipeline projects in Canada that experienced severe weather conditions during the three and nine months ended September 30, 2020, both of which were complete as of September 30, 2021. With respect to all of these large pipeline projects, the aggregate net favorable impact on gross profit related to work performed in prior periods was $32.9 million and $15.1 million during the three and nine months ended September 30, 2020.
Additionally, during the three and nine months ended September 30, 2020, Quanta was pursuing the orderly exit of its Latin American operations, which was substantially complete as of December 31, 2020. These operations were adversely impacted by the COVID-19 pandemic due to shelter-in-place restrictions and other work disruptions, and as a result Quanta accelerated various contract terminations and other activities in order to expedite cessation of operations in the region. These factors resulted in changes in estimates on several projects and negatively impacted gross profit related to work performed in prior periods by $12.1 million and $28.6 million in the aggregate during the three and nine months ended September 30, 2020.
Changes in cost estimates on certain contracts may also result in the issuance of change orders, which can be approved or unapproved by the customer, or the assertion of contract claims. As of September 30, 2021 and December 31, 2020, Quanta had recognized revenues of $254.1 million and $141.2 million related to change orders and claims included as contract price adjustments that were in the process of being negotiated in the normal course of business. The largest component of the revenues recognized is associated with change orders and claims arising from delays on two electric transmission projects in Canada. The most significant delays on these projects occurred in the first and third quarters of 2021 and were related to the COVID-19 pandemic that negatively impacted productivity. Additionally, during the third quarter of 2021, both of the projects were negatively impacted by unrelated wildfires, and one was also impacted by acceleration of the project timeline, all of which resulted in change orders. Quanta believes that the contracts for these projects entitle it to recover certain amounts associated with these delays. The aggregate amounts related to change orders and claims, which are included in “Contract assets” in the accompanying condensed consolidated balance sheets, represent management’s estimates of additional contract revenues that have been earned and are probable of collection. However, Quanta’s estimates could change, and the amount ultimately realized could be significantly higher or lower than the estimated amount.
Revenues by Category
The following tables present Quanta’s revenue disaggregated by geographic location, as determined by the job location, and contract type (in thousands):
Three Months Ended September 30, Nine Months Ended September 30,
2021 2020 2021 2020
By primary geographic location:
United States $ 2,892,446  86.2  % $ 2,629,606  87.1  % $ 7,669,360  84.7  % $ 7,105,568  85.7  %
Canada 382,072  11.4  % 320,576  10.6  % 1,123,077  12.4  % 917,621  11.1  %
Australia 52,804  1.6  % 49,537  1.6  % 170,719  1.9  % 156,664  1.9  %
Others 25,956  0.8  % 20,442  0.7  % 93,519  1.0  % 110,634  1.3  %
Total revenues $ 3,353,278  100.0  % $ 3,020,161  100.0  % $ 9,056,675  100.0  % $ 8,290,487  100.0  %

Three Months Ended September 30, Nine Months Ended September 30,
2021 2020 2021 2020
By contract type:
Unit-price contracts $ 1,399,358  41.8  % $ 1,141,102  37.7  % $ 3,593,644  39.7  % $ 3,034,169  36.6  %
Cost-plus contracts 825,622  24.6  % 702,392  23.3  % 2,247,879  24.8  % 1,958,404  23.6  %
Fixed price contracts 1,128,298  33.6  % 1,176,667  39.0  % 3,215,152  35.5  % 3,297,914  39.8  %
Total revenues $ 3,353,278  100.0  % $ 3,020,161  100.0  % $ 9,056,675  100.0  % $ 8,290,487  100.0  %
Under fixed price contracts, as well as unit-price contracts with more than an insignificant amount of partially completed units, revenue is recognized as performance obligations are satisfied over time, with the percentage completion generally measured as the percentage of costs incurred to total estimated costs for such performance obligation. Approximately 42.5% and 47.9% of Quanta’s revenues recognized during the three months ended September 30, 2021 and 2020 were associated with this revenue recognition method, and 43.4% and 48.4% of Quanta’s revenues recognized during the nine months ended September 30, 2021 and 2020 were associated with this revenue recognition method.
Contract Assets and Liabilities
Contract assets and liabilities, recorded as current assets and liabilities, respectively, consisted of the following (in thousands):
September 30, 2021 December 31, 2020
Contract assets $ 760,279  $ 453,832 
Contract liabilities $ 501,142  $ 528,864 
Contract assets and liabilities fluctuate period to period based on various factors, including, among others, changes in the number and size of projects in progress at period end and variability in billing and payment terms, such as up-front or advance billings, interim or milestone billings, deferred billings and unapproved change orders and contract claims recognized in
revenues. The increase in contract assets from December 31, 2020 to September 30, 2021 was primarily due to increased working capital requirements related to progress on two large electric transmission projects in Canada and the timing of billings for such projects. Both of the projects were negatively impacted by delays related to the COVID-19 pandemic and unrelated wildfires, and one project was also impacted by acceleration of the project timeline, all of which resulted in change orders and an increase in contract assets.
Revenues were positively impacted by $151.7 million during the nine months ended September 30, 2021 as a result of changes in estimates associated with performance obligations on fixed price contracts partially satisfied prior to December 31, 2020. During the nine months ended September 30, 2021, Quanta recognized revenue of approximately $381.9 million related to contract liabilities outstanding at December 31, 2020.
Current and Long-Term Accounts Receivable and Allowance for Credit Losses
Quanta’s historical loss ratio and its determination of risk pools, which are used to calculate expected credit losses, may be adjusted for changes in customer credit concentrations within its portfolio of financial assets, customers’ ability to pay, and other considerations, such as economic and market changes, changes to the regulatory or technological environments affecting customers and the consistency between current and forecasted economic conditions and historical economic conditions used to derive historical loss ratios. At the end of each quarter, management reassesses these and other relevant factors, including any potential effects from the currently challenged energy market and the ongoing COVID-19 pandemic.
Quanta considers accounts receivable delinquent after 30 days but does not generally consider such amounts delinquent in its credit loss analysis unless the accounts receivable are at least 90 days past due. In addition to monitoring delinquent accounts, management monitors the credit quality of its receivables by, among other things, obtaining credit ratings of significant customers, assessing economic and market conditions and evaluating material changes to a customer’s business, cash flows and financial condition. Should anticipated recoveries relating to receivables fail to materialize, including anticipated recoveries relating to bankruptcies or other workout situations, Quanta could experience reduced cash flows and losses in excess of current allowances provided.
For example, in July 2021 Limetree Bay Refining, LLC (Limetree Refining), a customer within Quanta’s Underground Utility and Infrastructure Solutions segment, filed for bankruptcy protection under Chapter 11 of the U.S. Bankruptcy Code, as amended, after experiencing operational and financial difficulties and shutting down operations at its refinery. As of September 30, 2021, Quanta had $31.3 million of billed and unbilled receivables for services performed and other costs. Quanta also had $0.7 million of billed and unbilled receivables outstanding from Limetree Bay Terminals, LLC (Limetree Terminals), an affiliate of Limetree Refining that has not filed for bankruptcy. During the three months ended June 30, 2021, Quanta recorded a provision for credit loss of $23.6 million with respect to these receivables based on the current estimated amount of expected loss. However, given the uncertainties associated with the bankruptcy proceeding and the financial condition of the customers, the amount of receivables ultimately collected and the ultimate amount of credit loss recognized depends on a number of factors that are subject to change, including, among other things, the potential sale of the refinery assets by Limetree Refining, negotiations with respect to payment of the amounts owed by Limetree Terminals and the result of any preferential payment actions brought in the bankruptcy proceeding. As such, an additional allowance for credit loss may be recorded in the future, including with respect to the remaining $8.4 million of receivables owed by the customers. See Concentrations of Credit Risk in Note 10 for further discussion of the credit quality of certain other outstanding receivables due from customers that have experienced financial difficulties.
Activity in Quanta’s allowance for credit losses consisted of the following (in thousands):
  Three Months Ended Nine Months Ended
September 30, September 30,
  2021 2020 2021 2020
Balance at beginning of period $ 39,713  $ 14,948  $ 16,546  $ 9,398 
Cumulative effect of adoption of new credit loss standard —  —  —  5,067 
Provision for credit losses 249  1,566  24,169  2,910 
Direct write-offs charged against the allowance (253) (110) (1,006) (971)
Balance at end of period $ 39,709  $ 16,404  $ 39,709  $ 16,404 
Certain contracts allow customers to withhold a small percentage of billings pursuant to retainage provisions, and such amounts are generally due upon completion of the contract and acceptance of the project by the customer. Based on Quanta’s
experience in recent years, the majority of these retainage balances are expected to be collected within approximately twelve months of September 30, 2021. Retainage balances with expected settlement dates within twelve months of September 30, 2021 and December 31, 2020 were $295.9 million and $306.3 million, which are included in “Accounts receivable.” Retainage balances with expected settlement dates beyond twelve months of September 30, 2021 and December 31, 2020 were each $88.2 million and are included in “Other assets, net.”
Quanta recognizes unbilled receivables for non-fixed price contracts within “Accounts receivable” in certain circumstances, such as when revenues have been earned and recorded but the amount cannot be billed under the terms of the contract until a later date or when amounts arise from routine lags in billing (for example, work completed during one month but not billed until the next month). These balances do not include revenues recognized for work performed under fixed-price contracts, as these amounts are recorded as “Contract assets.” At September 30, 2021 and December 31, 2020, unbilled receivables included in “Accounts receivable” were $827.3 million and $472.3 million. The increase in unbilled receivables was primarily due to the ramp up of work, certain delays in billing related to a large customer and a significant amount of emergency restoration services revenues performed in the latter part of the third quarter that remained unbilled at the end of the quarter. Quanta also recognizes unearned revenues for non-fixed price contracts when cash is received prior to recognizing revenues for the related performance obligation. Unearned revenues, which are included in “Accounts payable and accrued expenses,” were $39.5 million and $53.6 million at September 30, 2021 and December 31, 2020.
Cash and Cash Equivalents
Amounts related to Quanta’s cash and cash equivalents based on geographic location of the bank accounts were as follows (in thousands):
  September 30, 2021 December 31, 2020
Cash and cash equivalents held in domestic bank accounts $ 1,664,990  $ 156,122 
Cash and cash equivalents held in foreign bank accounts 31,220  28,498 
Total cash and cash equivalents $ 1,696,210  $ 184,620 
At September 30, 2021 and December 31, 2020, cash equivalents were $1.63 billion and $98.0 million and consisted primarily of money market investments and money market mutual funds and are discussed further in the Fair Value Measurements section within this Note 2. The proceeds received from Quanta’s issuance of senior notes on September 23, 2021 represented a significant portion of the cash and cash equivalents balance at September 30, 2021, and such proceeds were utilized to fund the acquisition of Blattner on October 13, 2021, as described further in Notes 4 and 6.
Cash and cash equivalents held by joint ventures, which are either consolidated or proportionately consolidated, are available to support joint venture operations, but Quanta cannot utilize those assets to support its other operations. Quanta generally has no right to cash and cash equivalents held by a joint venture other than participating in distributions, to the extent made, and in the event of dissolution. Cash and cash equivalents held by Quanta’s wholly-owned captive insurance company are generally not available for use in support of its other operations. Amounts related to cash and cash equivalents held by joint ventures and the captive insurance company, which are included in Quanta’s total cash and cash equivalents balances, were as follows (in thousands):
  September 30, 2021 December 31, 2020
Cash and cash equivalents held by domestic joint ventures $ 13,377  $ 7,714 
Cash and cash equivalents held by foreign joint ventures 4,568  3,973 
Total cash and cash equivalents held by joint ventures 17,945  11,687 
Cash and cash equivalents held by captive insurance company 132,916  85,014 
Cash and cash equivalents not held by joint ventures or captive insurance company 1,545,349  87,919 
Total cash and cash equivalents $ 1,696,210  $ 184,620 
Goodwill and Other Intangible Assets
Goodwill, net of accumulated impairment losses, represents the excess of cost over the fair market value of net tangible and identifiable intangible assets of acquired businesses and is stated at cost. Quanta has determined that its individual operating units represent its reporting units for the purpose of assessing goodwill impairment. Goodwill is not amortized but is tested for impairment annually in the fourth quarter of the fiscal year, or more frequently if events or circumstances arise which indicate
that goodwill may be impaired. Qualitative indicators that may trigger the need for annual or interim quantitative impairment testing include, among other things, deterioration in macroeconomic conditions; declining financial performance; deterioration in the operational environment; an expectation of selling or disposing of a portion of a reporting unit; a significant change in market, management, business strategy or business climate; a loss of a significant customer; increased competition; a sustained decrease in share price; or a decrease in Quanta’s market capitalization below book value. Quanta did not identify any triggering events in the first three quarters of 2021 and did not recognize any goodwill impairments for the three and nine months ended September 30, 2021.
Quanta’s intangible assets include customer relationships; backlog; trade names; non-compete agreements; patented rights, developed technology, and process certifications; and curriculum, all of which are subject to amortization, as well as an engineering license, which is not subject to amortization. As a result of the broader challenges in the energy market, the effect of which continues to be exacerbated by the COVID-19 pandemic, Quanta assessed the expected negative impact related to its intangible assets, particularly intangible assets associated with reporting units within the Underground Utility and Infrastructure Solutions Division. Quanta concluded that such impact is not likely to result in intangible asset impairments, and therefore no intangible asset impairments were recognized during the three and nine months ended September 30, 2021.
In connection with its annual goodwill assessment in 2020, Quanta also considered the sensitivity of its fair value estimates to changes in certain valuation assumptions, including with respect to reporting units within Quanta’s Underground Utility and Infrastructure Solutions Division that have recently been negatively impacted by energy market challenges. The potential future impact of these challenges is uncertain and depends on numerous factors and could continue or increase in future periods. In particular, two Canadian pipeline-related businesses and a United States material handling services business were identified in the annual goodwill assessment to have an increased risk of goodwill impairment in the near and medium term due to the currently challenged energy market. After taking into account a 10% decrease in fair value, these reporting units would have had fair values below their carrying amounts as of December 31, 2020. The aggregate goodwill and intangible asset balances for these three businesses totaled $100.1 million and $16.0 million as of September 30, 2021. In addition, a specialized industrial services business located in the United States experienced lower demand for certain services during the year ended December 31, 2020, which has continued in 2021, as customers reduced and deferred regularly scheduled maintenance due to lack of demand for refined products, particularly certain transportation-related fuels, as a result of the COVID-19 pandemic. After taking into account a 10% decrease in fair value, the reporting unit would have had a fair value in excess of its carrying amount as of December 31, 2020; however, uncertainty as to the timing and extent of recovery of demand for refined products has increased the risk of goodwill impairment for this reporting unit. The goodwill and intangible asset balances for this reporting unit were $313.4 million and $51.9 million as of September 30, 2021. Quanta will continue to monitor the goodwill associated with these reporting units, and should they suffer additional declines in actual or forecasted financial results, the risk of goodwill impairment would increase.
Investments in Affiliates and Other Entities
Investments in entities of which Quanta is not the primary beneficiary, but over which Quanta has the ability to exercise significant influence, are accounted for using the equity method of accounting. Equity method investments are carried at original cost adjusted for Quanta’s proportionate share of the investees’ income, losses and distributions. The carrying values for Quanta’s unconsolidated equity method investments were $73.8 million and $44.9 million at September 30, 2021 and December 31, 2020 and are included in “Other assets, net” in the accompanying condensed consolidated balance sheets. Quanta’s share of net income or losses of these investments is included within operating income in the accompanying condensed consolidated statements of operations when the investee is operationally integral to the operations of Quanta and is reported as “Equity in earnings (losses) of integral unconsolidated affiliates.” Quanta’s share of net income or losses of unconsolidated equity method investments that are not operationally integral to the operations of Quanta are included in “Other income (expense), net” below operating income in the accompanying condensed consolidated statements of operations. As of September 30, 2021, Quanta had receivables of $13.3 million and payables of $3.2 million from its integral unconsolidated affiliates.
During the nine months ended September 30, 2020, Quanta recognized impairment losses of $8.7 million related to a non-integral equity method investment, which were primarily due to the decline in commodity prices and production volumes during 2020. These impairment losses are included in “Other income (expense), net” in the accompanying condensed consolidated statements of operations for the nine months ended September 30, 2020.
In October 2021, Quanta acquired a 44% interest in an entity that provides right-of-way solutions, including site preparation and clearing, materials delivery and installation and management of permitting requirements and traffic control for approximately $18 million, subject to certain adjustments. This investment will be accounted for as an integral affiliate using the equity method of accounting.
Investments in entities of which Quanta is not the primary beneficiary, and over which Quanta does not have the ability to exercise significant influence are accounted for using the cost method of accounting. Additionally, certain investments provide for significant influence over the investee, but also include preferential liquidation rights, which precludes accounting for the investments under the equity method. These cost method investments are required to be measured at fair value, with changes in fair value recognized in net income unless the investments do not have readily determinable fair values, in which case the investments are measured at cost minus impairment (if any), plus or minus observable price changes in orderly transactions for an identical or similar investment in the same company. Earnings on investments accounted for using the cost method of accounting are recognized as dividends are declared. These earnings and any impairments of cost method investments are reported in “Other income (expense), net” in the accompanying condensed consolidated statements of operations.
The carrying values for investments accounted for using the cost method of accounting were $130.2 million and $39.5 million at September 30, 2021 and December 31, 2020, and these amounts are included in “Other assets, net” in the accompanying condensed consolidated balance sheets. During the three months ended March 31, 2021, Quanta acquired a minority interest in a broadband technology provider for $90.0 million. This investment includes preferential liquidation rights and is accounted for using the cost method of accounting. There have been no changes in the carrying value of the investment through September 30, 2021.
During the three months ended March 31, 2021, Quanta also purchased, through its wholly-owned captive insurance company, certain real property, including associated buildings and facilities, that is expected to be developed for its future corporate headquarters. A portion of this property is currently leased to third-party lessees and is expected to continue to be leased to third-party lessees in the future. As a result, an investment in real estate of $23.5 million was recognized at cost for the third-party leased portion of the property during the three months ended March 31, 2021, and the carrying amount of $23.4 million is included in “Other assets, net” in the accompanying condensed consolidated balance sheet at September 30, 2021.
During the three months ended June 30, 2020, Quanta recognized a $9.3 million impairment to an investment in a water and gas infrastructure contractor, which also represents the cumulative amount of impairment on investments accounted for using the cost method of accounting. Quanta did not exercise its option to acquire the remaining interest in this business at an agreed price based on a multiple of the company’s earnings during a designated performance period.
See Note 10 for additional information related to investments.
Puerto Rico Joint Venture
During the three months ended June 30, 2020, a joint venture in which Quanta owns a 50% interest, LUMA Energy, LLC (LUMA), was selected for a 15-year operation and maintenance agreement to operate, maintain and modernize the approximately 18,000-mile electric transmission and distribution system in Puerto Rico. In June 2021, LUMA completed the steps necessary to transition operation and maintenance of the system from the owner to LUMA and entered into an interim services agreement. Once the owner emerges from its Title III debt restructuring process, the 15-year operation and maintenance period is scheduled to begin. During the interim services period, LUMA receives a fixed annual management fee, payable in monthly installments, and is reimbursed for costs and expenses. During the 15-year operation and maintenance period, LUMA will continue to be reimbursed for costs and expenses and receive a fixed annual management fee, but will also have the opportunity to receive additional annual performance-based incentive fees. LUMA has not assumed and will not assume ownership of any electric transmission and distribution system assets or be responsible for operation of the power generation assets. Quanta’s ownership interest and participation in LUMA is accounted for as an equity method investment due to Quanta’s equal ownership and management of LUMA with its joint venture partner. LUMA is operationally integral to the operations of Quanta, and therefore Quanta’s share of LUMA’s net income or losses is reported within operating income in “Equity in earnings (losses) of integral unconsolidated affiliates.” Included within the equity method investments described above are Quanta’s equity interest in LUMA of $34.5 million and $10.9 million at September 30, 2021 and December 31, 2020.
Accounts payable and accrued expenses
Accounts payable and accrued expenses consisted of the following (in thousands):
  September 30, 2021 December 31, 2020
Accounts payable, trade $ 956,873  $ 798,023 
Accrued compensation and related expenses 497,451  378,002 
Other accrued expenses 306,465  333,769 
Accounts payable and accrued expenses $ 1,760,789  $ 1,509,794 
Income Taxes
Quanta regularly evaluates valuation allowances established for deferred tax assets for which future realization is uncertain, including in connection with changes in tax laws. The estimation of required valuation allowances includes estimates of future taxable income. The ultimate realization of deferred tax assets is dependent upon the generation of future taxable income during the periods in which those temporary differences become deductible. Quanta considers projected future taxable income and tax planning strategies in making this assessment. If actual future taxable income differs from these estimates, Quanta may not realize deferred tax assets to the extent estimated.
As of September 30, 2021, the total amount of unrecognized tax benefits relating to uncertain tax positions was $40.6 million, an increase of $7.4 million from December 31, 2020. The increase resulted primarily from a $5.0 million increase in reserves for uncertain tax positions expected to be taken in 2021 and a $2.4 million increase related to prior year positions. Quanta’s consolidated federal income tax return for tax year 2019 is currently under examination by the Internal Revenue Services (IRS), and Quanta’s consolidated federal income tax returns for tax years 2017, 2018, and 2020 remain open to examination by the IRS, as these statute of limitations periods have not yet expired. Additionally, various state and foreign tax returns filed by Quanta and certain subsidiaries for multiple periods remain under examination by various U.S. state and foreign tax authorities. Quanta believes it is reasonably possible that within the next 12 months unrecognized tax benefits may decrease by up to $13.3 million as a result of settlement of these examinations or as a result of the expiration of certain statute of limitations periods.
Fair Value Measurements
For disclosure purposes, qualifying assets and liabilities are categorized into three broad levels based on the priority of the inputs used to determine their fair values. The fair value hierarchy gives the highest priority to quoted prices (unadjusted) in active markets for identical assets or liabilities (Level 1) and the lowest priority to unobservable inputs (Level 3). Certain assumptions and other information as they relate to these qualifying assets and liabilities are described below.
Goodwill and Other Intangible Assets
Quanta has recorded goodwill and identifiable intangible assets in connection with certain of its historical business acquisitions. Quanta utilizes the fair value premise as the primary basis for its impairment valuation procedures. The Goodwill and Other Intangible Assets sections in Note 2 of the Notes to Consolidated Financial Statements in Item 8. Financial Statements and Supplementary Data in Part II of the 2020 Annual Report provide information regarding valuation methods, including the income approach, market approach and cost approach, and assumptions used to determine the fair value of these assets based on the appropriateness of each method in relation to the type of asset being valued. Quanta believes that the valuation methods it employs appropriately represent the methods that would be used by other market participants in determining fair value, and periodically engages the services of an independent valuation firm when a new business is acquired to assist management with the valuation process, including assistance with the selection of appropriate valuation methodologies and the development of market-based valuation assumptions. The level of inputs used for these fair value measurements is the lowest level (Level 3).
Investments
Equity investments with readily determinable fair values are measured at fair value, with changes in fair value recognized in net income. In cases where those readily determinable values are quoted market prices, the level of input used for these fair value measurements is the highest level (Level 1). Equity investments without readily determinable fair values are measured on a nonrecurring basis. These types of fair market value assessments are similar to other nonrecurring fair value measures used by Quanta, which include the use of significant judgments and available relevant market data. Such market data may include observations of the valuation of comparable companies, risk-adjusted discount rates and an evaluation of the expected
performance of the underlying portfolio asset, including historical and projected levels of profitability or cash flows. In addition, a variety of additional factors may be reviewed by management, including, but not limited to, contemporaneous financing and sales transactions with third parties, changes in market outlook and the third-party financing environment. The level of inputs used for these fair value measurements is the lowest level (Level 3).
Quanta has investments accounted for using the equity and cost methods of accounting. Quanta utilizes the fair value premise as the basis for its impairment valuation and recognizes impairment if there are sufficient indicators that the fair value of the investment is less than its carrying value.
Financial Instruments
The carrying amounts of cash equivalents, accounts receivable, contract assets, accounts payable, accrued expenses and contract liabilities approximate fair value due to the short-term nature of these instruments. All of Quanta’s cash equivalents were categorized as Level 1 assets at September 30, 2021 and December 31, 2020, as all values were based on unadjusted quoted prices for identical assets in an active market that Quanta has the ability to access.
Long-term Debt
The carrying amount of variable rate debt, which includes borrowings under Quanta’s senior credit facility, approximates fair value. Quanta’s fixed rate debt primarily includes its senior notes. The fair value of Quanta’s senior notes, which are described further in Note 6, was $2.52 billion at September 30, 2021, compared to a carrying value of $2.47 billion net of unamortized bond discount, underwriting discounts and deferred financing costs of $28.3 million. The fair value of the senior notes is based on the quoted market prices for the same issue, and the senior notes are categorized as Level 1 liabilities. See Note 6 for additional information regarding Quanta’s senior credit facility and senior notes.